Low Ash Metallurgical Coke (LAM Coke/MET Coke) is solid carbonaceous material obtained from destructive distillation of low ash, low sulphur Bituminous coal. Coke is formed when the coal is heated in the absence of air. The residue obtained from the carbonization of a non-coking coal such as sub Bituminous coal. Lignite or Anthracite is normally called char. Coke contains carbon as its principal constituent, together with mineral matter and residual volatile matter. Coke is used as a fuel and reducing agent is smelting iron ore in blast furnace. Since, it is one of the basic raw materials used to produce pig iron, which in turn is used to manufacture steel. This is the prime reason behind the integral steel plants having their own LAM coke manufacturing plant on premises. Traditionally, chemistry, size & strength ( both cold as well as hot ) have been considered the most important properties for use in the blast furnace. The quality of the constituent coal determines the characteristics of the resultant coke. The volatile constituents of the coal – including water, coal-gas, and coal-tar are driven off by baking in an airless oven at temperatures as high as 2,000 degree Celsius. This fuses together the fixed carbon and residual ash. Most coke in modern facilities is produces in “by-product” coke ovens. Today, the hydrocarbons are considered to be by-products of modern coke-making facilities (though they are usually captured and used to produce valuable products). Non by product coke ovens, burn hydrocarbon off-gases on site to provide the heat needed to drive the carbonization process. Classification There are two varieties of coke available in the global and domestic market, both having a divers set of end use application. These two varieties area) Metallurgical Coke (or Met Coke) b) Petroleum Coke (or Pet Coke) Metallurgical Coke Metallurigical coke, also known as “Met” coke or “LAM” coke, is a carbon material manufactured by the “destructive distillation” of various blends of bituminous coal. Met coke has a very low volatile content. However, the “ash” constituents remain encapsulated in the resultant coke. Typical purities range from 82-92% fixed carbon. The different varieties of metallurgical coke include – Blast Furnace grade Foundry grade Ferro alloy coke Other chemical industries grade The consumption of LAM coke in India is generally indicated in Figure give below. From this Figure below, it can be noted that pig iron manufacturers are the major consumers of LAM coke. Figure consumption pattern of Met Coke i)Pig Iron Industry 75% ii)Foundry 15% iii)Ferro-Alloys 5% iv)Others 5% ——- Total 100% Typical Specification of the LAM coke is given below:- VM <1.5% (air dry basis) Ash <11.0% (air dry basis) Sulphur <0.6% (air dry basis) Phosphorus <0.03.5% (air dry basis) M40